Từ điển trực tuyến - Online Dictionary

English - Vietnamese Dictionary
refinement /ri'fainmənt/
  • danh từ
    • sự lọc; sự tinh chế (dầu, đường); sự luyện tinh (kim loại)
    • sự tinh tế, sự tế nhị, sự tao nhã, sự lịch sự, sự sành sỏi
    • cái hay, cái đẹp, cái tinh tuý, cái tao nhã
      • all the refinements of the age: tất cả cái tinh tuý (cái hay, cái đẹp) của thời đại
    • thủ đoạn tinh vi, phương pháp tinh vi, lập luận tế nhị, sự phân biệt tinh vi
      • refinements of cruelty: những thủ đoạn tàn ác tinh vi
Concise Dictionary
+a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality
+the result of improving something
+the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)
+a subtle difference in meaning or opinion or attitude
+the quality of excellence in thought and manners and taste

Thesaurus Dictionary
1 culture, polish, elegance, sophistication, urbanity, urbaneness, breeding, cultivation, gentility, propriety, courtliness, civility, politeness, politesse, delicacy, tact, diplomacy, finesse, suavity, suaveness, taste, tastefulness, discrimination, discernment, sensitivity:
He drank thirstily, with no pretence at refinement.
2 subtlety, nicety, nuance, distinction, detail, fine point, delicacy, minutia; fastidiousness, finickiness:
The latest version contains refinements that are beyond the appreciation of all but a few.
3 refining, purification, purifying, clarification, clarifying, cleaning, cleansing; filtration, distillation:
The sugar must undergo refinement before being sold commercially.
4 improvement, betterment, bettering, enhancement, development, perfection:
She is working on the refinement of her technique before performing in public.
Advanced English Dictionary
+ noun
1 [C] a small change to sth that improves it: This particular model has a further refinement. + all the refinements of modern technology
2 [C] ~ of sth a thing that is an improvement on an earlier, similar thing: The new plan is a refinement of the one before.
3 [U] the process of improving sth or of making sth pure: the refinement of industrial techniques + the refinement of uranium
4 [U] the quality of being polite and well educated and able to judge the quality of things; the state of having the sort of manners that are considered typical of a high social class: a person of considerable refinement + an atmosphere of refinement
Collocation Dictionary

1 improvement to/on sth; process of improving sth


considerable, great
A greater refinement of the categorization is possible.
| extra, further | continuous, endless
All programs have bugs and need endless refinement.
| useful
It is possible to add a few useful refinements to the basic system.
| technical | modern




need, require
The technology requires a great deal of refinement.
| add, introduce


~ in
a refinement in the masonry
| ~ on
a refinement on previous methods
| ~ to
to add a further refinement to the computer system

2 being polite/well educated; clever in design


a woman of great refinement and beauty


The kite was star shaped and lacked the refinement of current designs.


~ in
a lack of refinement in engine design


a lack of refinement

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