English - Vietnamese Dictionary
gender /'dʤendə/Concise Dictionary
- danh từ
- (ngôn ngữ học) giống
- masculine gender: giống đực
- feminine gender: giống cái
genders'dʒendə(r)Advanced English Dictionary
+a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness
+the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
+ nounCollocation Dictionary
1 [C, U] the fact of being male or female: issues of class, race and gender + gender differences / relations / roles
2 [C] (grammar) (in some languages) each of the classes (MASCULINE, FEMININE and sometimes NEUTER) into which nouns, pronouns and adjectives are divided. Different genders may have different endings, etc.
3 [U] (grammar) (in some languages) the division of nouns, pronouns and adjectives into different genders: In French the adjective must agree with the noun in number and gender.
Ways of talking about men and women
When you are writing or speaking English it is important to use language that includes both men and women equally. Some people may be very offended if you do not.
The human race
Man and mankind have traditionally been used to mean 'all men and women'. Many people now prefer to use humanity, the human race, human beings or people.
The suffix -ess in names of occupations such as actress, hostess and waitress shows that the person doing the job is a woman. Many people now avoid these. Instead you can use actor or host,(although actress and hostess are still very common) or a neutral word, such as server for waiter and waitress.
Neutral words like assistant, worker, person or officer are now often used instead of -man or -woman in the names of jobs. For example, you can use police officer instead of policeman or policewoman, and spokesperson instead of spokesman or spokeswoman. Neutral words are very common in newspapers, on television and radio and in official writing, in both BrE and AmE.
When talking about jobs that are traditionally done by the other sex, some people say: a male secretary/nurse/model (NOT man) or a woman/female doctor/barrister/driver. However this is now not usually used unless you need to emphasize which sex the person is, or it is still unusual for the job to be done by a man/woman:
My daughter prefers to see a woman doctor. + They have a male nanny for their kids. + a female racing driver.
He used to be considered to cover both men and women: Everyone needs to feel he is loved, but this is not now acceptable. Instead, after everybody, everyone, anybody, anyone, somebody, someone, etc. one of the plural pronouns they, them, and their is often used:
Does everybody know what they want? + Somebody's left their coat here. + I hope nobody's forgotten to bring their passport with them.
Some people prefer to use he or she, his or her, or him or her in speech and writing: Everyone knows what's best for him or herself. He/she or (s)he can also be used in writing:
If in doubt, ask your doctor. He/she can give you more information. (You may find that some writers just use 'she'.) These uses can seem awkward when they are used a lot. It is better to try to change the sentence, using a plural noun. Instead of saying:
A baby cries when he or she is tired you can say Babies cry when they are tired.
GENDER + NOUN
relations | differences, divisions
She examines the interplay between changing gender divisions and urban change.
| bias, imbalance, inequality
The government is working on tackling gender inequalities in employment.
| identity, role, stereotype
Managers may value different qualities in men than in women, reinforcing gender stereotypes.
| issues, politics
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